Article 2 of the Convention describes biodiversity as:
“the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems”.
Biodiversity of nature occurs on three levels of nature organisation:
This three levels are subordinated among them and interacts each other.
At the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, world leaders agreed on a comprehensive strategy for "sustainable development". One of the key agreements adopted at Rio was the Convention on Biological Diversity. The Convention establishes three main goals:
- the conservation of biological diversity,
- the sustainable use of its components,
- the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits from the use of genetic resources.
Protecting biodiversity is in our self-interest. Biological resources are the pillars upon which we build civilizations. The loss of biodiversity threatens our food supplies, opportunities for recreation and tourism sources of wood, medicines and energy. “Goods and Services" provided by ecosystems include:
- Provision of food, fuel and fibre,
- Provision of shelter and building materials,
- Purification of air and water and influence on decomposition of wastes,
- Stabilization of the climate and moderation of floods, droughts, temperature extremes, etc.
- Pollination of plants, including many crop species,
- Control of pests and diseases,
- Maintenance of genetic resources,
- Cultural and aesthetic benefits,
- Ability of ecosystems to adapt to changes.
Main factors threatening biodiversity are the following:
- Fishery and angling,
- Game management,
- Water and sea management,
- Land use planning and land management,
Poland is a country characterised by rich biodiversity. Various bio-geographic influences and different forms of land cultivation were friendly for it. Extensive forms of cultivating on big territories and different forms of protection enabled many elements of today's biodiversity to survive.